S.S Mohd Yusoff, K. Airul Asmiza, M.A Mohamad Razi, S.Mohd Khairulnizam.
Page No : 2-9
Peranan Jurutera Jabatan Pertanian : Merealisasikan Sumber Rezeki Baru (Durian, Kelapa , Jagung Bijian Dan Napier)
Pertanian kini dilihat sebagai suatu bidang yang sangat penting dalam menjamin pembangunan ekonomi negara dan mampu
menjana pendapatan serta sumber rezeki kepada para petani dan usahawan pertanian. Dalam memastikan bekalan makanan
Negara mencukupi dan kebergantungan terhadap barangan/produk import, peralihan era globalisasi kearah pemodenan sektor
pertanian adalah amat perlu melalui penerimaan atau pengaplikasian teknologi serta cetusan-cetusan idea inovasi baru.
Hasrat kerajaan untuk merealisasikan “Sumber Rezeki Baru” melalui komoditi durian, kelapa, jagung dan napier memberi satu
cabaran kepada jurutera Bahagian Kejuruteraan Pertanian, Jabatan Pertanian Malaysia untuk bersama-sama menjalankan
tanggungjawab dari segi idea dan sumbangan tenaga serta khidmat sokongan teknikal untuk memastikan kelancaran dan
kelestarian pelaksanaan projek-projek pembangunan pertanian . Justeru peranan jurutera pertanian penting dalam memacu
kearah pencapaian matlamat Pembangunan Industri Pertanian Negara.
A. Mohd Shahrir, S. Yahya, M.A. Amir Syariffuddeen, A. Saiful Azwan, S. Masniza, M.S. Zainun, M.Y. Mohd Akmal, H. Azman, A. Sha’fie, M.A.T. Mohd Hafiz, S. Amir Redzuan, Z.A. Mohd Zaimi, J. Shukri, S. Mohd Azmirredzuan.
Page No : 10-12
Development and Design of Household Composter
As urbanization influenced the lifestyle of folks in the city, the problem with solid waste management is rapidly becoming a huge
consequences. Treating household’s waste at source would help to ease the waste management problem before turning into a
crisis. A new prototype household composter was designed to accommodate the city households which can manage, dispose and
utilize kitchen and food waste. This two-tier household composter with a capacity of 5 kilograms kitchen and food waste and
duration taken for composting process between 7 to 8 days, easy maintenance and user friendly. The results indicated the effective
operational performance of the prototype household composter in practice and the output compost complies with standard with
no bad odour (soil earth odour) and ready to use for plant application. The household composter hence effectively replaces the
kitchen waste bin with significant value addition and can help to minimizes greenhouse gases emissions. This will also help to
cultivate a culture among householders in adopting the composting practice in their daily activities as common practice.
Wan Mohd Aznan, W.A., Mohd Shahmihaizan, M.J., Md Akhir, H., Zawayi, M., Norahshekin, A.R..
Page No : 13-16
Evaluation of Performance for Young Coconut Husk Processing Machine and Its Product Quality
Fresh coconut water industry in Malaysia has grown as its demand has increased tremendously at about 32.12 million young
coconuts per month. Hence, production of husk from the coconut industry has also increased and contributed to the problem at
disposal level. A young coconut husk processing machine to produce cocopeat and fiber has been developed to provide added
value to the residue. An assessment of performance for the machine and its products quality has been done. The assessment of
quality for cocopeat was done by using rotary screener that equipped with 16 mesh nets and multi-layer shaker. The evaluation
results showed that the machine capacity of the young coconut husk extractor was up to 514.9 kg / hour with the average weight
ratio of unfiltered cocopeat and fiber produced at 65.4% and 34.6% respectively. Meanwhile the results of cocopeat quality
evaluation have found only 5.7% and 0.6% fiber contained in the cocopeat mixture after extraction and filtration respectively.
Utilization of this technology by small entrepreneurs is necessary to develop a new dimension of waste management from the
young coconut water industry and also create a competitive industry chain for building local socio-economic.
W.A. Wan Mohd Fariz, S. Rosnah, H. Azman.
Page No : 17-21
Sifat fizikal dan mekanikal batang pokok sagu (metroxylon spp.)
Pokok sagu rumbia (metroxylon spp.) mempunyai batang yang tegak, lurus, berkulit keras dan berteras lembut yang terbina
daripada serat berorentasi selari dengan arah batang pokok. Kanji yang dihasilkan oleh pokok disimpan di bahagian
terasnya sebagai makanan simpanan. Dalam proses- pengekstrakan sagu, teras batang sagu perlu dipecahkan kepada saiz
yang lebih halus/kecil melibatkan penggunaan sistem mekanikal yang bergantung kepada sifat fizikal dan mekanikal pokok.
Oleh itu, satu kajian ke atas batang pokok sagu dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti sifat fizikal dan mekanikalnya. Tiga
sampel bagi setiap empat pokok sagu berukuran 50 cm panjang telah diukur sifat fizikal dari segi diameter (45.41±2.81
cm), ketebalan kulit (1.43±0.19 cm) dan nisbah berat kepada panjang keratan (1.12±0.21 kg/cm). 12 sampel blok teras
batang pokok sagu berukuran 4cm x 4cm x 4cm disediakan dan ditentukan kandungan lembapan (MC%). Sampel blok
diletak pada kedudukan orentasi serat berselari dengan arah pergerakan jarum penguji (P/5: 5mm Dia Cylinder Stainless
Steel) yang dipasang pada Texture Analyzer untuk mengukur daya kerapuhan, dan proses ini diulang dengan kedudukan
orentasi serat blok sampel secara berserenjang. Berdasarkan keputusan ujikaji, daya kerapuhan pada arah selari dengan
orentari serat (529.15±19.14 N/cm2) lebih tinggi berbanding arah serenjang (317.91±22.08 N/cm2) di mana nilai P<0.05.
Ini menunjukkan kehadiran orentasi serat dalam teras mempengaruhi daya kerapuhan.
Osman, S. F., Hashim, M. M., Sulaiman, A., Abdullah, M. Y..
Page No : 22-26
Hot Water Treatment of Oil Palm Decanter Cake (OPDC) For Bio-organic Media of Oil Palm Seedlings
OPDC has high potential to be used as organic media for oil palm seedlings due to its substantial nutrient content.
However, residual oil in OPDC could give negative effect to plant growth. This study was conducted to examine the
potential of hot water-treated OPDC as bioorganic media and its effects on growth performance of oil palm seedlings.
OPDC was treated with hot water to remove oil content and chemical analysis was determined on N, P, K, Ca and Mg.
Then, treated OPDC was mixed with MPOB F1 fertilizer and soil at 25%, 50% and 75% to be used as bioorganic growing
media. The results showed that after hot water treatment, residual oil was reduced from 15% to 10-11%. Once applied as
planting media, highest growth performance and biomass accumulation was recorded by mixture of 25% treated OPDC
with soil and MPOB F1 fertilizer. Plant height, stem girth, leaf number, leaf area, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and
root dry weight were improved by 28%, 15%, 10%, 60%, 72%, 45% and 18%, respectively as compared to control. In
conclusion, appropriate amount of treated OPDC addition in growing media could improve the growth of oil palm seedling
after oil content removal.
A. S. Mat Su, S. Q. Tan.
Page No : 27-31
A Review of Fertilization Assessment Methods in Oil Palm Plantation
Rising in production cost due to labour shortage, low efficiency of farm operation, low yield, and increase in input cost of
materials were among the key factors faced by Malaysian oil palm industry. Thus, significantly affect the overall upstream
performance and the annual budget for the plantation operation. Input cost, especially fertilizer accounted for more than
50% of the production cost annually. Highly weathered tropical soil, intensive and mono-cropping farming activities caused
nutrient depletion over the availability of the nutrient to the plant. Among the agronomic practices, fertilizer application
and saving become a limitation due to its increasing share of production cost, thus effect the annual targeted yield. Prior
to the fertilizer application and recommendation rate, a proper fertilizer assessment program should be conducted for
achieving economic, social and environmental sustainability. In this paper, several methods of fertilizer assessment for oil
palm plantation were identified and discussed based upon the agronomic practices. In addition, the several techniques
under proximal sensing technology for Precision Agriculture (PA) program to quantify the fertility and crop response also
were listed. The adaptation of the technology and a new approach in reducing the fertilizer used will lead the input cost
reduction in oil palm plantation while improves overall farm efficiency.
Nurulhuda, K., Husni, M.H.A., Zawawi, M.A.M., Zakaria, M.P., Struik, P.C., Keesman, K.J..
Page No : 32-35
Temporal Variation of Ammonium in Sulfic Tropaquept Cultivated with Rice in Experimental Pots
Hypothetically, monitoring of soil solution NH4
+-N dynamics may allow estimation of nitrogen (N) transformation rates
such as the rates of nitrification, denitrification, mineralisation and immobilisation. Such observations can be used to
evaluate and improve performance of N dynamics models for flooded rice systems. Therefore, the objective of this study
was to evaluate temporal variation of ammonium dynamics in fertilised and flooded rice pots. Concentrations of NH4
were determined in soil solutions that were extracted by MacroRhizon samplers. MacroRhizon is a soil solution sampler
with a pore size of 0.15 μm manufactured by Rhizosphere Research, the Netherlands. In comparison to typical soil sampling
methods, some advantages of using MacroRhizon are repeated sampling at the same spot possible, easy to install and less
disturbance to the soil due to the small diameter, and maximum pore size of 0.2 μm which requires no further filtering
prior to chemical analysis. Results showed that under current agronomic and management practices, broadcast N
application had no obvious and consistent influence on soil solution NH4
+-N. Analysis of the results suggest that suitability
of soil solutions extracted using the MacroRhizon samplers as alternatives for the labourious and destructive conventional
soil samplings is subject to further investigation.
Sulin, S.N., Mokhtar, M.N..
Page No : 36-40
Residual crude palm oil resources and recovery method: A Review
Over the past few years, Malaysia is among countries who led the world's crude palm oil (CPO) production. This scenario
however giving drawbacks due to a large volume of biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), oil palm
mesocarp fiber (OPMS), decanter cake (DC) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). Whilst they still contain valuable residual
oil, which currently million tons of these biomass treated as solid and liquid waste. As opposed to the elimination approach,
this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the residual crude palm oil recovery method from different types of
biomass resources. Common method proposed in the industry is by extraction using an organic solvent such as n-hexane,
but due to it classified as hazardous to air pollutant and highly flammable, many researchers tried to find better approaches
such as green solvent D-limonene, sub-critical water, and supercritical CO2 with or without ethanol. Apart from that, some
of the researchers recovered the residual oil by physical means such as pressing, hydro solvent-assisted steam extraction
(HYSASE), high pressure water spray (HPWS) and nanofiber absorption technique. For the time being, most of the
researchers focused on the oil recovery for a specific type of biomass, but by understanding the method principle, it could
bring possibility to treat another type of biomass or can be combined to get high yield of residual oil. Therefore, this strategy
will pave the way for several potentials in residual oil utilization such as biodiesel, bio-lubricant, MAG and DAG
W. Hafizz, S. Rosnah, Y. Robiah.
Page No : 41-43
A review of palm mesocarp maceration and separator machine
The most usual method of extraction crude palm oil is by pressing mescarp fiber and nut together using screw press. Due
to this reason, nut and kernel are tend to break by exerted pressing pressure from screw press thus resulting in high kernel
loss. Over the years there are many tools and machine have been developed for fiber and nut separation. There are seeral
technique hve been introduced to separate mesocarp from its nut including manual or power operated machine. Manual
tools are depend on the skill of the worker itself thus, operated machine are developed to eliminate the limitation of manual
tools. Most recent separation machine design and technology being discuss in this work has been conferred for various
objectives and not only limited for fiber and nut separation before oil extraction. This review paper aims to bring a further
understanding on the design, capabilities and limitation from differerent thechnique of fiber and nut separation have been
used specifically for palm oil industries.
Hasfalina, C.M, Corolin, B., M. Rashid, M.Y., Muhammad Hazwan, H..
Page No : 44-48
The Potential Use of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) As Properties of Lightweight Concrete
Malaysia is well known as the main crude palm oil producer and exporter in the world. Million tonnes of agro wastes such
as Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is being produced every year with no commercial return on it. Due to pozzolanic behaviour
possessed by POFA, it could be significance if the POFA is being recycled and used in production of lightweight concrete.
Thus, this study investigated the effects of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) on engineering properties in terms of compressive
strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength. Three types of concrete were prepared, lightweight concrete with
100 % sand as control mix (CM), lightweight concrete with 10 % POFA replacement as part of filler (POFA10), and
lightweight concrete with 20 % POFA replacement as part of filler (POFA20). All the specimens were water cured prior
mechanical tests. The laboratory results showed that the incorporation of POFA into lightweight concrete has increased its
compressive strength about 10%, flexural strength about 28% and splitting tensile strength about 23%. This shows that
Palm Oil Fuel Ash has a great potential to be applied as part of lightweight concrete materials.
Norshafiqah. K.A, Hasfalina. C.M, M. Hazwan. H, Syazwani. I, Nik Norsyahariati. N.D, Wan Azlina. W.A.K.G.
Page No : 49-53
Methane Production from Anaerobic Co-digestion of Sewage Sludge and Decanter Cake
Increased production of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment and decanter cake from palm oil mill industry results in
the generation of large quantities of waste that ends up difficulty to find the effective method of disposal. In this study, an
anaerobic co-digestion has been considered to convert these organic pollutants into methane gas. Anaerobic co-digestion
of sewage sludge and decanter cake was studied in 125mL serum bottles with 100mL working volume. The effect of different
inoculum to substrate ratios (I/S) on biogas production was investigated. The batch study was conducted at the ratio I/S of
1:0.5, ratio 1:1 and ratio 1:2 and sewage sludge alone as control at ratio 1:0. Daily biogas collection for the ratio of 1:2
had resulted the highest cumulative biogas production of 247 mL. The highest methane yield was obtained at mixing ratio
of 1:0.5 with 165.6 L CH4 / g VS. As a comparison, all co-digestion ratios produced more biogas than the sewage sludge
alone. This proved that anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and decanter cake can improve the production of biogas.
Nozieana K., Sobri M..
Page No : 54-56
Composting of Municipal Solid Waste of Kampung Bako Sarawak
A preliminary study was conducted to assess the feasibility of composting of source separated organic matter of municipal
solid waste (MSW) generated in areas of Kampung Bako, Kuching, Sarawak with a population over 3000. Results of MSW
analysis indicate the presence of high percentage of biodegradable organic matter, acceptable moisture content and C/N
ratio. On windrow composting, not only the volume of the waste was reduced but also produced a crumbly earthy smelling
soil-like, compost material. All quality parameters in the compost samples were found to be within the acceptable limits set
by international standard. The compost quality could further be improved by adding rice husk, poultry manure or yard
waste etc. Its use in plant production or land reclamation may be helpful to maintain soil fertility and improve moisture
holding capacity. MSW Composting could be adapted country wide to recycle/reuse the organic residue as solid waste
Farah Fazwa, M.A., Mohd Zaki, A., Syafiqah Nabilah, S.B., Norhayati, S..
Page No : 57-61
Peranan Pembiakbaka Tumbuhan Dalam Memperkasakan Industri Herba Negara: Pengalaman dan Usaha FRIM
Kertas kerja ini membincangkan mengenai peranan pembiakbaka tumbuhan khususnya untuk tumbuhan herba dalam
membantu menghasilkan bahan tanaman berkualiti tinggi dalam menghadapi permintaan bekalan bahan mentah di dalam
industri herba negara. Kebanyakan bahan mentah yang diambil adalah dikutip secara liar dari hutan semulajadi dan hanya
sedikit yang ditanam secara perladangan. Hal ini jika dibiarkan berterusan akan menyebabkan berlakunya kepupusan dan
hakisan sumber genetik di dalam hutan semulajadi. Oleh itu kajian-kajian dan usaha untuk mengekalkan sumber genetik
tumbuhan dan bagi memilih dan mengenalpasti bahan tanaman/varieti yang berkualiti tinggi telah dilakukan oleh
kumpulan penyelidik dari Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia (FRIM). Beberapa pendekatan seperti pengumpulan
baka, penyaringan kandungan kimia/aktiviti biologi, pembiakan, penanaman dan penubuhan sourcebush dan germplasma
telah dilakukan bagi memastikan bekalan bahan mentah yang berkualiti dan teruji dapat diperkenalkan kepada industri.
Selain daripada itu, kombinasi bidang pembiakbakaan dan bidang kejuruteraan juga perlu diselaraskan agar hasil bahan
mentah herba yang dikeluarkan dapat dipertingkatkan.
Mailina J., Nor Azah M.A., Abd. Majid J., Mohd Shafik Yuzman T., Saidatul Husni S., Mohammad Faridz Z.P., Imin K., Sharmizi I., Syazwan A., Hada Masayu I., Mohd. Hafizi R., Menhat A.R..
Page No : 62-65
Serai Wangi : Minyak Pati dan Kawalan Kualiti
Serai wangi (Citronella) merupakan salah satu tumbuhan herba di Malaysia yang telah digunakan sejak dahulu di dalam
perubatan tradisional terutamanya untuk rawatan ibu selepas bersalin. Ia adalah daripada genus Cymbopogon dan famili
Gaminae. Terdapat dua spesies serai wangi yang biasa ditanam di kawasan Semenanjung Malaysia iaitu C. nardus (Jenis
Sri-Lanka) dan C. winterianus (Jenis Java). Sekali imbas secara fizikal, kedua-dua spesies tumbuhan ini agak sukar
dibezakan. Pengecaman daripada ahli botani adalah penting untuk proses autentikasi spesies. Namun begitu, jika ianya
telah diproses menjadi minyak pati, kawalan kualiti (analisis kimia dan ciri kimia-fizik) memainkan peranan penting dalam
membantu proses autentikasi spesies-spesies ini. Kandungan kimia penting bagi minyak pati daun C. nardus adalah
kamfena, limonena, sitronelal, borneol, sitronelol, geraniol dan metil isoeugenol. Manakala, minyak pati daun C.
winterianus terdiri daripada limonena, linalol, isopulegol, sitronelal, sitronelol, geraniol, geranial, sitronelil asetat,
eugenol, geranil asetat, β-elemena, germakrena D, -kadinena dan elemol.
Hada Masayu I, Fauziah A, Fadzureena J, Nor Azah M A, Sharmizi I, Fatin Fazliyana M L, Mohd Hafizi R.
Page No : 66-68
The Effect of Drying Temperatures on the Active Compound of Vitex Negundo Leaves
The effect of drying temperature on the leaves of Vitex negundo was determined. Three levels of temperatures (40, 50 and
60°C) were used in the presented study. The initial moisture content of the leaves was 69.98%. Continuous drying at the
above mentioned temperature levels was conducted to determine the drying time required to achieve equilibrium moisture
content. The quality of dried leaves was evaluated based on the quantity of agnuside, major compound of V. negundo using
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The fastest drying of the leaves was achieved at 60°C,
followed by at 50°C, but HPLC results showed that dried V. negundo suffered at 40% reduction in agnuside content when
drying at 60°C as compared to at 40°C. Slight reduction of agnuside was found in the sample dried at 50°C. Based on the
findings of this work, the best convection oven drying condition for V. negundo leaves was at 50°C with 502.224 mg/L of
Azmi. M., Z., Rukunudin. I., H., Ismail. H., A., Dahuli. K..
Page No : 69-74
Drying Air Properties Investigation and Simulation Study of a Commercial Mixed-Flow Batch Type Paddy Seed Drying System
In Malaysia, numerous extensive research to gauge the performance and efficiency of paddy dryers were conducted by past
researchers. These studies gave valuable insights into paddy drying and promoted further research oppurtunities, especially
in engineering and technical studies. However, the study of commercial grain dryers performance for paddy seed drying
still lacks in Malaysia. The absence of fundamental information, such as the static pressure requirement, the right volume
of air (volumetric flow rate) and the drying air temperature profile requisite in regard to paddy seeds drying leads to illinformed
judgements and poor decision-making which can be detrimental, especially in regars to the design and plant
installation. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the three pertinent parameters i.e. static pressure,
volumetric flow rate and the temperature profile of the drying air of a commercial, mixed-flow, batch type seed dryer at
Loji Pemprosesan Benih Padi Sah (A) at Telok Chengai, Kedah using both field experimentation and computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results from experimentation investigation suggested that in current operating condition and
configuration, the drying system is producing 460 Pa (46.90 mmH2O) of static pressure per 300 mm of grain bed depth
which is lower than the recommended value of 500 Pa (51.00 mmH2O) and 4 times lower than the actual required value
due to higher grain bed depth (1,200 mm) at the top of the dryer. The volumetric flow rate of 15,699 m³/h (9,240 cfm or 577
cfm/mt) produced by the blower fan also indicated that it lacks volume of air to facilitate efficient drying rate as
recommended value are as high as 1,589 cfm/mt. Thermal imaging of the drying system revealed that 8.88% losses in
temperature occured from the blower fan (45°C) to the drying plenum (41°C). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
simulations was performed through ANSYS-Fluent commercial software indicated that these results were acceptable as the
disparity between the actual experimentation results and the simulated results were 10.0% and 7.3% for the static pressure
and temperature profile respectively.
Amir Syariffuddeen, M.A., Faridah, H., Shahrir, A., Aida Hamimi, I..
Page No : 75-80
Evaluation of lab scale Vitato flour processing and drying performance using cabinet dryer
Vitato sweet potato has a bright orange colour with rich in carbohydrate as well as high content of β-carotene which
functioning as Vitamin A in human body. With this high nutrients, Vitato has potential to become an alternative for health
ingredient for processing flour and has used as one of the ingredient for premix flour for bakery purposes, such as for
baking biscuits, muffins and cakes. An experiment has done to evaluate the processing flow of Vitato flour in the pilot scale.
An amount of 25kg of fresh Vitato has used as feedstock and has through several processes of washing, peeling, sorting,
slicing, drying and grinding. The performance of drying process on time consumption and moisture reduction profile has
investigated. It has recorded time consumption to complete process for production of Vitato flour are 8 hours/ day with
20% recovery of flour, with 14.49kW electricity power, 560 litres of water used with 3 man power operation.
Ishak, H, Noor Ismawaty, N, Zaulia,O, Nur Syafini, G, Nurul Afza, A. K.
Page No : 81-85
Kajian Kesan Pengawetan dan Tanpa Pengawetan Keatas Penyimpanan Persekitaran Pengudaraan Biasa Terhadap Kualiti Tekstur Ubi Keledek Unggu Varieti K6
Pegawetan merupakan satu proses penting dalam rantaian pengendalian lepas-tuai ubi keledek. Dalam proses pengawetan,
ubi keledek akan di simpan selama 3 atau 4 hari bergantung kepada variety di bilik pengawetan dimana parameter suhu
dan kelempan udara persekitaran dikawal. Melalui proses pengawetan, luka-luka kecil semasa penuaian dan pengendalian
di peringkat ladang akan dirawat bagi mengelak kerosakkan yang lebih parah seperti pereputan pada sruktur isi akibat
pembiakkan mikro organism. Objektif kajian ini ialah untuk menilai kualiti tekstur ubi keledek unggu variety K6 selepas
pengawetan dan tanpa pengawetan keatas peyimpanan persekitaran pengudaraan biasa. Eksperiment telah dilaksanakan
di Ibu Pejabat MARDI, Serdang. Ubi keledek unggu varieti K6 yang telah matang (selepas 16 minggu penanaman) di tuai
dan dibawa dari Stesen MARDI Bachok, Kelantan. Sampel-sampel ubi keledek dengan masing-masing berat dalam julat 1
kilogram dibahagi ke dua iaitu rawatan pengawetan dan tanpa rawatan pengawetan (kawalan). Parameter suhu dan
kelembapan bandingan bilik pengawetan ditetapkan masing-masing pada 27oC 1oC dan 85%RH 5%. Tempoh masa
rawatan pengawetan adalah 1,2 dan 3 hari yang dikira bermula hari ia dimasukkan ke dalam bilik pengawetan. Masa
untuk penyimpanan persekitaran biasa, bagi sampel-sampel yang diawet dan tanpa diawet adalah 0,5,10 dan 15 hari yang
dikira bermula hari disimpan. Tiga sampel bagi setiap ujian dikeluarkan dan satu ubi keledek akan diambil dari setiap
sampel. Bacaan purata tekture yang diukur dari tiga lokasi diambil dan direkodkan serta dianalisis menggunakan perisian
statistik. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa rawatan pengawetan mainkan peranan dalam meningkatkan nilai tektur keledek
unggu. Daripada plot kesan utama (main effect plot) menunjukkan bacaan tekstur lebih tinggi iaitu sekitar 21N selepas 3
N.I. Khalid, N. Ab Aziz.
Page No : 86-90
Challenges in cleaning for frozen food SMEs: Current and suggested cleaning program
Cleaning can be costly and complex especially for SMEs. Food SMEs have a restricted budget and knowledge to implement
an effective cleaning program. A study was conducted in a frozen food SME to investigate the current cleaning practice.
Physically and microbiologically cleanliness was set as the cleaning target. Results show that the current cleaning program
was unable to reach a physically clean condition. A new cleaning program was suggested for this frozen food industry. The
new cleaning program was expected to help this factory to reach physically and microbiologically clean conditions. A clean
environment can lead to better food product quality and appearances.
Zakaria, N. Z., Nor, M. M. Z..
Page No : 91-93
Characteristics of Powders Produced from Different Parts of Sweet Potato
Sweet potato or scientific name called (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is one of the nutritious staple food crops that mostly
planted in the tropical regions. Different parts of the sweet potato plant may offer various benefits, but there is a lack of
understanding on the properties to link with its potential applications. The objective of this study is to determine the
characteristics of powders produced from different parts of sweet potato including stem, leaves, tuber and skin. The analyses
were done using powder flow analyser to perform the cohesion test, Powder Flow Speed Dependency test (PFSD test) and
caking test. All samples were fixed at 70ml volume for each experiment. The finding showed that the powder of sweet
potato stem, leaves, tuber and skin are categorized as free and stable powders and also prone to cake.
J.M. Omar, M.Z.M. Nor.
Page No : 94-96
Clarification of Guava Juice Through Membrane-Based Process
This study was aimed to explore the potential of using membrane-based process for the clarification of fresh guava juice.
The study was done to determine the effect of the process on the permeate flux behavior as well as the guava juice quality
attributes such as pH, turbidity and total soluble solids (TSS). The clarification of guava juice was performed using 100
kDa polymeric membrane in a dead-end module. The clarification process exhibited high productivities in terms of permeate
flux (12.72 -60.94kg/m²/hr) at a processing pressure of 1 bar. The process has also resulted a high reduction of turbidity
(95%) in the permeate with 5.67% reduction of TSS. No significant change was observed in terms of the pH of the feed,
permeate and retentate. The findings indicate that ultrafiltration can be successfully used in guava juice clarification.
Sapri, N.S., Jamaludin, D..
Page No : 97-101
Determination of Pure and Adulterated Stingless Bee Honey Based on Dielectric Properties
Recently, honey has become the target of adulteration due to high consumers demand and its nutritional value. This study
was carried out to quantify adulteration of stingless bee (kelulut) honey from Heterotrigona Itama sp. based on its dielectric
properties by using Precision Impedance Analyzer at frequency range of 40kHz to 40MHz. Five treatments of honey were
prepared: 1) pure honey,2) adulterated with 15% water, 3) adulterated with 30% water, 4) adulterated with 15% sucrose
and 5) adulterated with 30% sucrose. Result shows that dielectric constant (ε ′) decrease as frequency increase and the best
frequency to distinguished between pure and adulterated honey is at the range of 10MHz to 40MHz. It was found that as
percentage of sucrose added in pure honey increased, the dielectric constant is decreased while as the percentage of water
added in pure honey increased, the dielectric constant is increased. Strong negative relationship was found between
dielectric constant with viscosity (R2= 0.94), moisture content (R2= 0.98) and soluble solid content (R2= 0.81) at frequency
of 40 MHz. From this result, it concludes that the dielectric properties of stingless bee honey can be used to differentiate
between pure and adulterated honey and to determine viscosity, moisture content and soluble solid content of stingless bee
Page No : 102-106
Effect of Different Sugar Concentration on the Rheological and Textural Properties of Fish Mince
Fish mince were prepared from Alaska Pollock where fish were headed, gutted, washed and minced. The fish mince were
subjected to three formulations with different types of sugar which was sucrose, sorbitol and mannitol at 4%, 6% and 8%
(w/w) concentration. Rheological properties and textural properties of the fish mince is determined using a rheometer and
texture analyser. Rheological properties showed that as the sugar concentration increases, the fish mince displayed more
elastic properties rather than viscous. Higher stress and force were needed for deformation of fish mince at higher sugar
concentration. Fish mince added with mannitol at 8% (w/w) displayed the highest value of G’ and G’’. Textural properties
also concur with rheological results as it shows that an increase in sugar concentration, increases the gelling strength of
the fish mince especially with mannitol (p<0.05). An increase from 4% to 6% concentration of sugar showed a significant
difference for all sample (p0.05). This indicates that a lower sugar concentration could be used to produce similar gelling
strength of higher sugar concentration.
Jais, N.M., Mohd Salahuddin, M.B..
Page No : 107-110
Effect of Oat to Flour Ratio on Stickiness of the Cookie Dough
Texture attributes, such as stickiness of grain-based food is important to consumers and manufacturers (McManuis, 2001).
Descriptive method such as Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) is used in order to describe the textural properties of the cookie
dough. By using TPA, the structure of the food can be emphasize. Mixture formulation of cookie dough based on five
different cup ratios of oat to flour which are 1:1, 1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:1.75 and 1:75. The ratio of 1:1.5 is the basic mixture
formulation provided by the SME’s cookies company. The calculated weight was rounded off to the nearest whole number.
Example, for 1.8 cups of oat at ratio 1:1.5, the total weight required was 1.8 cups times 94 grams which equal to 169.2
grams. After rounded off to the nearest whole number, the weight required was 169 grams. Similar calculation method was
used to calculate the weight of flour. For each ratio of oat to flour, the total cup required for every mixing process was 4.5
cups. As results, different ratio of oat to flour had a significant effect on the dough stickiness where cookie dough with ratio
1:1.75 flour have the highest stickiness value while cookie dough with ratio 1:1.25 have the lowest stickiness value. This is
because the higher flour content contains higher starch which contribute to higher moisture content. Hence, the dough with
more flour is more sticky. The current study indicated a high potential in developing fiber-rich cookies with large inclusion
with composition of 1:1.25 of oats and flour respectively which produced a less sticky dough. Thus, the increasing of oat
and flour content in the formulation show a significant effect on dough stickiness.
Nurfarhana, S., Rosnah, S., Mohd. Zuhair, M.N., Norhashila, H., Azman, H. .
Page No : 111-114
Effect Of Storage Duration On The Color Value Of Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)
Effect Of Storage Duration On The Color Value Of Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea
Nashratul Shera, M. G., Yus Aniza, Y., Hasanah, M. G., Nyuk Ling, C..
Page No : 115-117
Effects of Conventional Storage Method on Geniotrigona thoracica Stingless Bee Honey Properties
Most of stingless bee honey contains high moisture content that can easily lead to honey fermentation. This study aims to
investigate the applicable of conventional storage method on stingless bee (Geniotrigona thoracica) honey and its effect on
storage stability. The Geniotrigona thoracica honeys were stored in a glass bottle at 25˚C for 21 days. The samples were
subjected to physicochemical analysis such as moisture content, water activity, viscosity, pH, free acidity, electrical
conductivity, colour (L*, a* and b*) and colour intensity. The results obtained indicated that the honey stored in glass bottle
slowly reduced the moisture content. The moisture content of honey stored at 25˚C in a glass bottle was reduced from
28.03% to 27.25%. The free acidity of honey increase significantly from106.7 meq/kg to146.3 meq/kg. In conclusion, the
amount of water content of honey stored in glass bottle was not largely reduced and consequently changes the
physicochemical properties of honey.
Sarah, I.,, Rosnah, S., Mohd Noriznan, M., Mohd Zuhair, M.N..
Page No : 118-122
Comparative proximate composition and cyanide contents of each parts of local cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)
Each cassava parts, namely tuber, discarded tuber, leaves, stems, inner and outer peels of yellow cassava (Manihot
esculenta Crantz) from Selangor, Malaysia were used in this study. The cassava plant portions such as the tubers, stems,
peels, discarded tuber, and leaves were 50.06%,31.01%, 10.63%, 6.92 and 1.49% (w/w) respectively. Proximate analysis
show that all the cassava parts had high dry matter content with stems had the highest dry matter (98.77±0.00) than other
parts and the leaves had the least (93.89±0.06). There were significant differences (p0.05).These results indicate that the leaves and the stems contained
nutrients which can be included in the diet of animal after proper processing techniques that can lowering the cyanide
content to the safe level.
Puteri Nurain, M.A.A., Rosnah, S., Hasfalina, C.M., Mohammad Effendy, Y..
Page No : 123-125
Physical Properties of Matured Pepper Berries
Pepper is known as the ‘King of Spices’ and its botanical name is Piper Nigrum which is one of the most popular and oldest
spices in the world. There is a problem during manual sorting and grading of pepper such as the selected pepper berries
for white pepper production are less fulfilled according to standard of properties (dimension, weight and colour)
requirement that had been done by man power. This study is carried out to determine the physical properties (dimension,
weight, and colour) of mature pepper berries because they are vital in sorting and grading to evaluate the food quality. The
physical properties of food materials is essential for processing design and optimization. The preparation of the samples is
starting to collect from the plantation. The spikes with mature pepper berries were threshed manually to obtain the pepper
berries. The only full mature pepper berries were selected and prepared for further analysis. The physical properties of
mature pepper berries such as dimension (5.42 mm), weight (0.12 g), and colour (value of 63.05 (a*), 47.33 (b*), and 39.17
(L*)) were obtained after analysed. Hence, the results are based on the maturity period and can be applicable for the food
Nur Farhana, A. R., Rosnah, S., Amin, I., Nor Nadiah, A. K.S..
Page No : 126-129
Physicochemical properties of pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) byproducts
Pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) is known as the largest citrus fruit in the worlds. The fresh pulp often consumed directly
meanwhile pomelo byproducts including peels; exocarp: flavedo and endocarp: albedo and lamella were discarded. A
significant yield of waste was produced and may result in high cost of waste management. Therefore, the present study was
carried out after freeze-drying (FD) to discover the physico-chemical properties (water activity (aw), total soluble solids
(TSS), pH and vitamin C) of pomelo byproducts (flavedo, albedo and lamella). Results showed that the overall byproducts
contain lower water activity (<0.7) value after dried, whereas for TSS albedo (2.43°Brix) and lamella (2.23°Brix) showed
significantly (p <0.05) higher value compared to flavedo (1.77°Brix). Similar with pH analysis, significant lower value of
flavedo (5.44) was observed in comparison with albedo (5.78) and lamella (5.70). Nevertheless, lower pH value indicates
the presence of higher concentration of vitamin C in flavedo (30.52 mg AA/100g DW) more than albedo (25.83 mg AA/100g
DW) and lamella (17.48 mg AA/100g DW). Noteworthy information of the byproducts could be further applied in
nutraceutical approach and functional foods for commercial purposes.
Farahana Nabilah Z.A,, Rosnah S., 1Mohd Salahuddin M.B., Zanariah M.D..
Page No : 130-132
Some Physical Properties of Mature Green Nipah and Nangka Banana Fruit
Physical properties of fruits and vegetables are important as it is used as a grading measurement for packaging and safe
transportation. The postharvest losses of fruits are mainly due to its mechanical damage during transport and handling.
Banana for example, has various varieties with different shapes and sizes. Therefore this study was conducted to assess
some physical properties of mature green Nipah and Nangka banana fruit. Properties obtained were weight of whole fruit,
peel and pulp, dimensions, surface area and projected area. The average weight, length and diameter of Nangka is higher
than that of Nipah (p<0.05). Peel thickness of Nipah is higher than Nangka. The volume (Vellip), projected area (Pellip)
and surface area (Sellip), Nangka possess higher value than Nipah.
Zulkifli, N.A., Nor, M.Z.M., Mokhtar, M.N.,, Sulaiman, A.
Page No : 133-136
Strategies for Sustainable Production of Starch from Sweet Potato
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) belongs to the Convolvulaceae family. It is originated from southern Central
America and can be easily grown in the tropical climax. The sweet potato contains high nutritional values such as
carbohydrate, protein, dietary fibre, amino acids, enzymes, minerals, and vitamins. The main component in sweet potato is
starch, which can be used in many food applications. The main objective of this study is to propose some strategies in
designing a sustainable starch production from sweet potato. This can be done with the consideration of efficient starch
production steps as well as the production of its by-products in order to minimize the wastes as well as to maximize the net
profitability. The implementation of the recommended strategies in this study will hopefully ensure sustainable and feasible
production of starch from sweet potato which can benefit the farmers and producers of this crop.
F. F.W. Fazilah, N. S. Saroni, C.Y. N. Norasma.
Page No : 137-140
Production of spinach under variable water supply
The effects of a variable water supply on the growth and yield of spinach grown in cocopeat medium was examined in a
field experiment. Three irrigation treatments; (T1) common practice (T2) crop water requirement; and (T3) time scheduling
were monitored through the season from transplanting to harvest, 28 days (from January and February 2018) after planting
located in a shade house. For T1, spinach was irrigated 2 times per day until the medium surface is wet. An estimated value
of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was determined for spinach during this period in T2, giving a water requirement of 3.72
mm/day (for January 2017) and 4.04 mm/day (for February 2017). The irrigation interval was three days and scheduled
water was given based on the ETc value in T2 for T3. There were no significance response to the irrigation treatments for
plant height, number of leaves, canopy diameter and leaf length despite differences in biomass production measured. Plant
fresh weight and root length density was more sensitive in T3. The insignificant difference was hypothesized to be
contributed by that cocopeat medium used in this study that had provided satisfactory available water for the spinach
growth regardless different amount of irrigation water applied.
Zanariah, M. D., Nur Zaleqha, M. H., Lisnurjannah, M..
Page No : 141-144
Utilization of Banana Peel Flour As Fibre Ingredient in the Waffle Cones
Banana fruits are the most eatable fruits in Malaysia. However, its beneficial skin mostly will be thrown away. The fibrous
peels have slightly bitter taste with its good nutritional food attraction. They rich in starch and non-starch polysaccharides
including food fiber, antioxidants, polyphenols, essential minerals such as potassium, provitamin A, carotenoids, B1, B2
and C that are acts as dietary roles in human health. In this study, Saba banana peel flour (BPF) sifted to 0.012 inch will
convert into waffle cones. Preliminary study on the protein, moisture, crude fiber and fat were carried out for first stages
of maturity. First stage BPF acts as water binding agent in food due to its high water holding capacity and have low oil
holding capacity. BPF’s pH (6.15-6.46) is in standard wheat flour acidity range. Then, the BPF was substituted for 5%,
10%, and 20% of the wheat flour in a batter mix to make waffle cones. The substitution of BPF will affect the
physicochemical properties by the pH, colour, odour and tensile strength. As the results, waffle cones of BPF had lower
value of L* and b* which turned darker than controlled sample. The odour of banana smells in this waffle cones are sweet
and fresh but only acceptable physical analysis for 5% and 10% substitution BPF. While for 20% substitution of BPF gave
poor result in tensile strength and the sensory analysis but there also can be utiise for making dietary cookies.
Z. Mohd Shafie, R. Abdul Wahid, A. Shahar, A. Hamzah, H.H. Hasbullah, W.M.F. Wan Azman, S.A. Azizan, A.A. Rahim, S. Alwi, M.Z. Zainol Abidin, M.H. Mohd Amin Tawakkal, M.S. Johari, M.A. Sani1, M.A. Jamaluddin, F. Abdul Karim.
Page No : 145-147
Performance Evaluation of Vertijack (Jackfruit Opener) for Commercial-scale Fresh-cut Fruit Industry
The market of fresh-cut jackfruit is increasingly popular, due to current lifestyle that prefer quality fresh fruit and ready to
eat. The preparation of fresh-cut jackfruit is a time consuming, labour intensive and complicated due to the inherent nature
of the fruit. Skilled operators are needed to avoid bulb damaged and tissue injury that subsequently leads to quality
deterioration. For commercial or export markets the edible bulb needs to be presented in good shape. To overcome the
problems mention above, Vertijack was developed to cater commercial scale processing of jackfruit. The machine functions
is to aid the opening of the fruit whilst minimizing injury to the edible bulb by removing the core and then splitting open the
fruit. The average damaged bulbs due to mechanical injuries during splitting of fruit manually compared to the machine is
reduced by half i.e. 34% and 16% respectively. Furthermore, the processing time needed for Vertijack is about 73s per
fruit, which is 3 times faster than manual operation. The core removing efficiency is only 49 to 70% depends on the fruit
size and their core shape.
Sharifah Hafiza, M.R., Nur Azlin, R., Jamaluddin. M. A., Zainol Abidin. M. Z.
Page No : 148-151
Mobile precooler for horticultural produces – a preliminary study
Cooling is one of the critical unit operations in the horticultural supply chain. Cooling shortly after harvest is called
precooling. A mobile forced-air-cooler has been developed to visualize these precooling techniques. The mobile forced-aircooler
with a dimension of 0.6x0.15x1.3 m was developed using an axial fan with five nylon blade impeller and a fan
capacity of 1425 rpm. During experiments, five boxes of fruits were stacked in two columns in a cold room for the precooling
experiments. The mobile forced-air-cooler was placed in front of the stacks to draw the cold air through the stacks via the
ventilation holes. Another room cooling experiments were also executed concurrently as a comparison. The fruits were then
stored in a cold room for four weeks. Durian reduced its temperature to 9 C from its initial temperature of 20 C, while
pineapple reached 14 C from initial temperature of 25 C after 7 hours of precooling experiments. The trials did not able
to reach the seventh-eight cooling time however the fruits had a similar quality of fruits with cold room cooling experiments.
Nevertheless, the cooling profiles showed a lower curved than cold room cooling. Recommendations and improvements to
reach the desired seventh-eight cooling time were discussed.
MAHIRAH, J., Dimas, F.A.R., WIDODO, S., SUZUKI, T..
Page No : 152-155
Rice Quality Assessment Using Fluorescence Imaging Technique
Grain rice quality is defined by various parameters including physical, biochemical and physiochemical properties. Most
of the technology that have been developed only measure one quality characteristics at one time. More capability such as
assessment of multiple quality parameters in one system is desirable. In this research, a machine vision with double lighting
system has been developed to incorporate more features for the quality evaluation. The proposed machine vision system
has the capability to obtain information related with morphological features and fluorescence color information of the rice
simultaneously. Those features extracted from the image set were used to separate between non-white core, white core,
chalky and dead sake rice with different freshness condition. This system shows promising result for separating difference
type of rice with different freshness. These results provide an alternative way for quality grading technology for rice.
M. Nuramanina, H. Muhammad Hazwan, C.M. Hasfalina.
Page No : 156-160
Ultrasonic Pretreatment Prior to Soxhlet Extraction for Essential Oil from Basil Leaves (Ocimum Basilicum L.)
The extraction of oil from basil leaves was investigated by using conventional Soxhlet extraction method and ultrasonic as
a pre-treatment prior to Soxhlet extraction. The effects of two operating parameters on the oil extraction namely solvent to
solid ratio and reaction time were investigated to optimize the processing conditions of conventional Soxhlet extraction for
achieving maximum oil yield using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were found at 5 hours,
and a solvent to solid ratio of 1:33. The oil recovery from ultrasonic pretreatment prior to Soxhlet extraction under the
same optimum parameters was compared. The yield of oil from samples underwent ultrasonic as a pretreatment was 4.14%
while the conventional Soxhlet method yielded 6.24%. This finding is consistent with the evidence of Scanning Electron
Microscopy (SEM) images showed that the treated samples were flakier and porous than untreated samples. Overall, this
study has shown that treated samples via ultrasonic is incapable to increase the oil yield percentage compared to the
conventional Soxhlet extraction method.
R. Ruslan, S. K. Bejo, I. H Rukunudin, M. F. Ibrahim, A. A. Aznan.
Page No : 161-163
RiSe-IViS: Rice Seed Inspection Vision System
Rice seed production in Malaysia is greatly dependent on the purity of the cultivated paddy seed produced through the
government certified paddy seed program. Under the program, the seeds to be marketed by the seed processors must
undergo quality control protocol where the seed lots are sampled from the seed farms and seed processing plants for purity
analysis by the Seed Testing Laboratory of the Department of Agriculture (DoA), the enforcing agency. The current
inspection conducted by the laboratory is based on manual process which is laborious, time consuming (max 40 min for
newbie while skilled operator takes about 15-20 min.). The process is also very subjective and error prone as it is influenced
by the skills and experience of laboratory workers especially those involving segregating vague and indistinct special
morphological or even textural and color features. A prototype (Patent ID: PI2018500018) of a machine vision-based paddy
seed inspection system (RiSe-IViS) was developed to explore the possibility of replacing the existing manual method in
distinguishing the weedy rice and cultivated rice seeds under the SJPM standard protocol with a modern, effective and
efficient technique. The RiSe-IViS prototype developed consists of two parts i) hardware configuration ii) software protocol
development. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to assist user for image acquisition and analysis.
Analysis protocol was first developed based on the morphological features of the paddy seed and was tested for MR297
against weedy rice. The classification accuracy was achieved up to 99%. Validation of the protocol is to be carried out with
local seed plant in Kedah to enhance the system. The RiSe-IViS is expected to classify major rice seed varieties available
in Malaysia against the weedy rice variants with superior accuracy.
N.H.M. Nayanmm, M.S.A. Hamzah, A. Austad, E.F. Muslih, S.I.A. Razak.
Page No : 164-167
Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Chitosan Hydrogel Loaded with NPK Compound Fertilizer on Capsicum sp. Growth and Fruiting Yield Analysis
This paper reported on the reinforcement of superabsorbent (SA) fertilizer based from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using
chitosan via superficial freeze-thawing method. The obtained SAP beads are well developed with excellent mechanical
properties and high NPK compound fertilizer loading at 6 wt% chitosan loading. The effect of PVA/chitosan hydrogel on
plant growth and fruiting yield was observed using Capsium sp.by comparing with conventional fertilizer. The studies
showed plant samples with PVA/chitosan hydrogel growth exceptionally in term of its number of fruits(43±1), total mass
fruit yield (1654±1.3g), fresh and dry weight of plant (139.5±1.2%), leaf number (130.6±0.2%) and width (19.8±0.6%) as
well as chlorophyll content (0.036659) compared to conventional fertilizer method. Overall, these give good indication of
the modified SAP fertilizer as a new technology to be used in future agriculture.
Muhammad Haniff, A, Chan, C.S, Teoh, C.C, Eddy Herman, S, Mohd Zubir,M.I, Mohamed Fauzi,M.I, Mohd Khusairy,K, Mohd Shahril Shah,M.G, Mohammad Aufa,M.B.
Page No : 168-171
Application of electrical resistivity method to identify suitable location of shallow tube well for irrigation
Agricultural drought becomes more appearance due to climate change and uncertain weather pattern. The current and
continuing drought in many parts of the world, combined with ever increasing demands from both traditional and new water
users, including municipal, industrial, agricultural and environmental needs, has impacted groundwater resources.
Supplementary irrigation becomes important to overcome short term drought ensuring successful cultivation. Apart from
obtaining the irrigation water from the traditional water sources (surface run off and rainfall) for irrigation, other alternative
water source needs to be explored. The most feasible water source and relatively abundance is the ground water.Identify
suitable location for shallow tube well development using electrical resistivity method has been extensively used. This
method once of the surface geophysical methods can reduce risk and unnecessary costs by assisting in the siting of wells
location. Technique based on resistivity can be used to interpret the characteristics of aquifer and thus to identify suitable
location for tube well. The surveys were conducted at three different locations in Perak and Kelantan situated in Peninsular
Malaysia which was mainly aluvial deposits lithology.The shallow tube well in quartenary aquifer into the ground will
consider for groundwater identification.The resistivity values of highly discharge of groundwater approximately in ranges
of 4.4Ωm to 20 Ωm with flowrate at range 45 m³/h to 47 m³/h.The depths of tube well were in between 9 to 24 m. The
groundwater aquifers are found in saturated sand, coarse sand with some gravelly sand.
Hafidha, Mohd Shukry H.B, Mahidzal D..
Page No : 172-175
Design and Development of a Control System for Automated Rotary Planting
This research has been done to design and develop a planting system as a need to improve an urban farming technology.
This planting system is targeted to cultivate edible crops on urban house or building which can produce food plants within
a decorative landscape. The design was inspired by a Ferris wheel which the rotation mechanism is intended to allow
enough sunlight and good air flow to each crop in the planter box. This rotation gives chance to each crop in each planter
box to sunbathe during sunny day. The rotational mechanism is also aimed to assist all range of consumers to run
agricultural activities at convenient height. The system is equipped with sensors and a motor for an automation control.
Arduino Uno was used as a microcontroller to control irrigation system and relocation of planter boxes to the various
positions. The irrigation system starts it operation at 8.00am and 12.00pm. The rotation of planting system will stop at
every 45 degrees until it complete the full rotation for 2 times. The relocation of planter boxes happens at 9.00 am, 10.00am,
11.00am, 1.00pm, 2.00pm and 3.00pm. Each planter box is positioned at the new location to expose to the sunlight for an
hour long. Results obtained from the functioning test showed a good and promising performance of the rotary planting
system as it can be automatically operated to grow crops in an urban residential.
Mohd Khusairy, K., Fauzi, M. I., Mohd Taufik, A, Mohd Shahril Shah, M.G., Muhammad Aufa, M.B., Muhammad Fakhrulzaman, O., Muhammad Haniff, A., Azlan, O., Mohd Hashim, A., Ibrahim E., Saifulizan, M. N..
Page No : 176-177
Development of Mobile Traction Aid for Farm Machinery (Mo-Traid)
High moisture content of wetland soil makes wheeled farm vehicles have to struggle with severe loss of their mobility. Farm
machinery are prone to being bogged down and traffic-ability of the soil surface layer is very poor, when working on
problematic soil or soft soil area with low load-bearing capacity. This is due to hard pan damage or zero hard pan to support
the machines, resulting in the machines not having sufficient traction and ability to float. A traction aid fitted to the wheels
of a prime mover is needed to improve ground traction and its ability to maneuver on soft soil. Farm vehicles that are
operated in these conditions require a traction aid fitted to the wheel or in place of wheel is needed to improve ground
traction and its ability to maneuver on soft soil. The main purposes of this study are to examine soil behavior under traction
aid device attached on the farm machinery wheel. As per the studies conducted earlier, Mobile Traction Aid for Farm
Machinery (Mo-Traid) that have been develop are found to be the most effective device for wet rice fields to support
and help the farm machinery when it encounter soft soil area. Mo-Traid made by mild-steel with size 30cm x 10cm x 7cm.
This equipment can be adjustable with maximum length is 45cm. The weight of this equipment is 5kg and it practical to be
carry to the field. From the research it was revealed that the Mo-Traid exert more pull in comparison with tires in flooded
Mohamad Fakhrul Z.O., Hartinee A., Mohamed Fauzi M.I, Mohd Khusairy K..
Page No : 178-181
Mesin Merumpai Satu Baris Antara Batas Bagi Penanaman Nanas
Masalah rumpai bagi tanaman nanas adalah sangat ketara terutamanya bagi jenis tanah mineral. Kebiasaannya rumpai
menjadi masalah besar pada peringkat enam bulan awal pertumbuhan pokok dan mampu menjejaskan hasil pengeluaran
nanas. Bagi mengawal masalah ini, terdapat beberapa kaedah boleh diaplikasikan antaranya adalah kawalan mekanikal
atau mesin seperti yang kajian ini lakukan. Walau bagaimanapun, mesin itu perlu memenuhi kriteria utama iaitu jarak
antara batas bagi kegunaan merumpai antara batas iaitu 90cm. Manakala, mekanisma yang digunakan untuk adalah jenis
membajak. Oleh itu, terdapat dua jenis mesin telah dikenalpasti dan diubahsuai bagi kegunaan dalam kajian ini. Kajian
ini telah dijalankan di plot nanas MARDI Sintok, Kedah dalam dua keadaan iaitu pada permukaan tanah rata dan bercerun.
Data kekuatan tegasan tanah diambil sebelum dan selepas ujian dilakukan pada permukaan dan kedalaman 15cm daripada
permukaan tanah. Selain itu, jarak dan masa yang digunakan direkodkan. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan keupayaan kerja
bagi mesin merumpai traktor mini dan traktor dua roda masing-masing bagi tanah rata adalah 0.12 hektar perjam dan
0.115 hektar perjam. Manakala bagi tanah bercerun adalah 0.099 hektar perjam dan 0.077 hektar perjam masing-masing
bagi jenis traktor mini dan traktor dua roda. Selain itu, hasil bajakkan menunjukkan kedua-dua mesin mampu untuk
memotong permukaan tanah dan memusnahkan rumpai. Kajian menunjukkan bahawa mesin merumpai taktor mini lebih
baik berbanding traktor dua roda dari segi keupayaan kerja dan keselesaan operator untuk menjalankan kerja merumpai
A.R Rohazrin, A.S. Adli Fikri.
Page No : 182-186
Pengujian Traktor Kubota L3800 bertrek sebagai penggerak utama mekanisasi nanas di tanah gambut
Nanas merupakan salah satu komoditi yang diberi perhatian sebagai sumber penjana ekonomi kepada petani di Malaysia.
Nanas banyak ditanam di kawasan tanah gambut dan tanah mineral. Di kawasan tanah gambut, penggunaan mekanisasi
adalah terhad kerana keupayaan galasnya rendah. Ini menyebabkan kurangnya mekanisasi ladang diguna pakai di dalam
aktiviti pengeluaran nanas di tanah gambut. Kesesuaian penggerak utama atau traktor di tanah gambut dilihat sebagai
faktor utama yang membataskan penggunaan mekanisasi. Traktor Kubota L3800 berkuasa 38 kuasa kuda atau 28 kW
,dengan sistem 4 separa rantai diuji sebagai penggerak utama yang berpotensi untuk menjalankan aktiviti ladang
pengeluaran nanas di tanah gambut seperti aktiviti penyediaan tanah, penanaman, penjagaan tanaman, penuaian dan
pengangkutan. Hasil dari ujian tusukan di ladang nanas bertanah gambut menunjuk keupayaan galas adalah di dalam
lingkungan 0.1 ~ 0.2 Mpa, yang diketegori sebagai tanah bermasalah untuk mekanisasi. Keupayaan galas yang tertinggi
didapati pada kedalaman 10 cm pertama. Secara teori, tekanan sentuh permukaan trek bagi traktor L3800 pada berat
tanpa beban ialah 0.01 Mpa. Ketergelinciran pergerakan traktor adalah di antara 4.2 hingga 8.8%. Pemadatan tanah
didapati berlaku sehingga kedalaman 15 cm pertama dari permukaan. Kelegaan traktor 55 cm adalah kurang mencukupi
untuk kerja di dalam ladang. Kajian menunjukan mekanikasi pengeluaran nanas di tanah gambut adalah sesuatu yang
boleh dilaksanakan dengan penggunaan traktor bertrek dan peralatan yang kecil serta ringan.
Anuar A., Nurul Afza K., Shahmihaizan M. J., Mohd Fazly M..
Page No : 187-190
Disc Ridger Cum Inter-row Cultivator and Fertiliser Applicator for Sweet Potato Production
Mechanization has been the solution to counter issue such as labor shortage and low production rate on field in the
agricultural sector. Adaptation of mechanization system have shown to lower the cost of production, improve quality and
also reduce the tedious work of labor. Current practice, which seems to contribute high cost in labor since the job requires
a lot of man power. MARDI has developed a complete machinery package for sweet potato production from land preparation
until harvesting. One of the important activities that require an implementation of machinery aspect is ridge forming. This
activity is essential due to the height of the ridge which is one of the important factors that influences the yield. It is believed
that the higher the ridge will contribute, to more aeration and thus, produce higher yields. In this manuscript, the authors
report on the development and evaluation of the disc ridger. It is believed that this implement is capable to be used as ridge
forming as well as inter-row cultivator. This tractor-mounted implement is designed with two units of high quality steel discs
which is attached to the frame with disc diameter and thickness of 720 mm and 6 mm respectively. This disc ridger is able
to form either a single row or double row planting ridges to suit with the desired planting system for sweet potato. This is
due to the location of the discs at the frame which is adjustable. Furthermore, this implement also can be employed as an
inter-row cultivator for weeding control of sweet potato planting in the early stages. In addition, this implement also equipped
with granular based fertilizer applicator in which 2 application can be performed together which are inter row cutltivation
and fertilizer application.The recorded average working rate of this implement is 0.27 ha/hr for bed forming and 0.25 ha/hr
for inter-row cultivation with fertilizer application. In terms of fertilizer application performance, the average amount of
fertilizer to be withdrawn for 50m bed is 1.52kg, which is complied to the agronomist recommendation.
M., Azwan, B., A., Rahim, S., Salmah, J., M., Ikmal, H., M., Ramdhan, K., M. Rizal, Norman, K..
Page No : 191-197
Assessment of Electric Farm Vehicle as Motive Power for Oil Palm Mechanisation Operation in Malaysia
A comparative study on suitability of electric farm vehicle deployment in oil palm mechanisation operations was carried
out. Two research methodologies were pursued, the assessment of battery’s state of charge and the load carrying test. The
test was conducted in a 70-ha actual oil palm planted area with mild undulating topography and inland type soil. The first
results of the test suggested that the farm electric vehicle is suitable to be deployed for the field maintenance activity as
compared to the fresh fruit bunch and loose fruit evacuation activity. The second methodologies indicated that the electric
vehicle could reduce up to 48% of energy as compared to a common sizeable internal combustion engine vehicle in oil palm
plantation operation. In term of the environment, it was anticipated that a saving of almost 5.2 tonnes of CO2-eq per year
could be realised from the electric vehicle deployment for farm maintenance activity in Malaysia. Besides environmental
benefits, the electric vehicle also incurs lower purchase and maintaining cost compared to the common utility type diesel
engine vehicle. The benefit obtained shows that the electric vehicle could reduce dependency on fossil fuel energy for a
sustainable agriculture development in Malaysia.
Mohd Ramdhan, K., Abd Rahim, S., Norman, K..
Page No : 198-201
Determination of Minimum Suction Level for Collecting Oil Palm Loose Fruits
Loose fruits (LF) can be found at almost every stage of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) collection whether in the field or
at the mill. LF contain the optimum amount of oil, which is why they need to be collected to ensure maximum Oil Extraction
Rate (OER) at the mill. Various methods of LF collection were introduced for the oil palm industry, mostly comprising a
simple mechanical type or the suction type. Based on systems developed in the past, the suction type was found to be more
practical for collecting scattered LF around the palm base. This study seek to determine some suction parameters such
as airflow and air velocity, relationships between engine and fan speeds with various fruit capacities. Results of the study
showed that the minimum air velocity that is required to lift up a single LF is approximately 22.4 m/s or an airflow of 0.21
m3/s. Results also indicated that the effective airflow to collect oil palm LF is between 0.28 m3/s to 0.33 m3/s (air velocity
of 30 m/s to 35 m/s). It was found that engine speed will not be affected by the number of LF in the barrel; except the speed
of fan, which was affected especially at lower speed. Higher air velocity was produced at the end of the suction nozzle at
80% fruits capacity in the barrel as compared to the empty barrel. The findings are expected to help in designing an
effective suction machine for collecting oil palm LF.
Abd Rahim S., Mohd Ramdhan, K, Norman, K..
Page No : 202-204
Technologies for ground vehicle operating on peat and soft ground area.
The Malaysian plantation sector is dominated by the oil palm industry, and this sector needs innovative in-house
technologies to improve the productivity as well as reducing costs. The current oil palm area stands at 5.85 million ha,
which are planted on various ground soil conditions. This wide range of topography will definitely require diverse
technical specifications of capabilities of machines to accommodate it. A tracked machine is known for its ability to work
under wet and soggy ground conditions but it is costly to maintain. MPOB has developed a new transporter where it can
be run either with all four (4) wheels or a combination of front axle with conventional tyre while rear axle mounted with
track. With this innovation the durability of track can be extended as it only be fitted to the machine when the ground
condition is demanding it. The triangular track system fitted standard 4 x 4 transporter works well in areas that
inaccessible to the conventional wheel type transporter and reduces the problem of uncollected bunches. With this
machine it is envisaged that the recovery of fresh fruit bunches will be greatly improved.
Mohd Ikmal H., Abdul Razak J., Mohd Rizal A., Abd Rahim S..
Page No : 205-208
VIBRATION ISOLATOR FOR THE OIL PALM MOTORISED CUTTER
MPOB has introduced an oil palm motorised cutter called ‘CANTAS’ that works effectively for palms with harvesting
height of below 5-metres. CANTAS which is powered by a small petrol engine has been proven to double up harvesting
output compared to manual harvesting. However, the existing CANTAS design generates vibration that may lead to Hand
Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) under prolonged exposure. It is necessary that the level of vibration to be managed and
controlled. A vibration isolator has been designed and developed which functions to collect and isolate vibration of the
motorized cutter. The isolator comprises of a pair of bearing and a spring which the spring functions to reduce the vibration
while the bearings dispose the vibration from the motorized cutter. The study showed that the use of isolator reduced the
magnitude of HAV at holding points (P1 and P2) by 54 and 45%, respectively. Minimum HAV was obtained when the
vibration isolator was fixed at 70cm from the engine. The isolator was tested by a harvester in Banting Selangor who
experienced that the isolator helped to reduce vibration effect thus giving him much more comfortable during handling the
machine. This invention has further application that can also be extended to other vibration tools such as grass cutter
machine, mist blower, pruning machine and so on.
Muhammad Hairie, H., Darius, E. P..
Page No : 209-212
Straight-Line Accuracy of an Autopilot Tractor at Various Speeds: A Preliminary Assessment on Malaysia’s Flat Terrain
Nowadays autopilot mode become one of the alternative modes in driving tractor besides manual and unmanned or
autonomous. Although the system has been successfully introduced in its country of origin, however, specialized
assessments of this system on the areas which are different from its country of origin are prime interest to be investigated
whether it suits a local terrain condition of any country. Thus, a preliminary assessment of the straight-line accuracy of
autopilot tractor running at various specified levels of speed was conducted in order to understand its suitability with
Malaysia’s terrain conditions. In this study, a New Holland TD5.75 tractor equipped with Trimble® EZ-Pilot® Steering
System and Trimble® FmX® Plus Application was trialed on flat terrains that were overgrown with grasses at the UiTM
farm in Jasin, Melaka, Malaysia. Three levels of autopilot tractor forward speeds, i.e. 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2000 rpm were
selected as the parameters in measuring straight-line accuracy of the tractor. The SPSS ver. 25 and spreadsheet software
were used to analyze the collected data. This study found that there is a significant different between straight-line accuracy
of each the tested speeds. It also showed that there is a relationship between the tested speeds and straight-line accuracy.
Tengku Mohamad Khushaire, T.M.Z., Samihah, M..
Page No : 213-215
The Effect of Tillage on Soil Compaction and Soil Moisture Content: A Preliminary Study on Paddy Soil in Merlimau, Melaka
Soil tillage is an important step before cultivating rice by using equipment to prepare the soil for crop growth. It has many
procedures to follow in order to avoid future problem such as lower growth rate and fewer yield, as it affects the nutrients
intake. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soil tillage on the soil compaction and soil moisture before and
after ploughing process at paddy field. Hence, this study was to identify the change of soil compaction and soil moisture
content in each session of ploughing process and the relationship between soil compaction and soil moisture content after
first and second ploughing. A tractor model WM1104 with 110hp did the soil preparation. Both ploughing sessions were
using rotary tiller. The penetrometer was used for reading the resistance to penetration and measurement data can be read
from the display meter .The average values of soil compaction before and after first and second tillage are 186.94 psi,
162.22 psi and 137.78 psi respectively. There is also show a positive relationship between soil compaction and soil moisture
content. The higher soil compaction the lower soil moisture content and vice versa.
Shamilah, A. M., Darius, E. P..
Page No : 216-219
Effect of Field Speeds of Rice Combine Harvester on Grain Loss: A Preliminary Evaluation in Malaysian Paddy Fields
Combine harvester is one of the important farm machinery that universally used in rice harvesting to overcome the labor
shortage problem in Malaysian paddy fields. The machine is generally used in the harvesting of rice in the rice granaries
of the country. However, the excessive grain loss during rice harvesting in Malaysia is still problematic. Among the factors
of causing the significant grain loss is the field speed of the combine harvester. A preliminary study was conducted to
investigate the effect of combine field speeds on grain loss in Malaysia paddy fields. This study was able to determine the
most suitable combine field speed in rice harvesting with minimum the grain losses. The field speeds have a linear
relationship with grain loss. The best speed with was found to be 3.87 km/hr, which contributes only 0.67 % grain loss or
equal to RM8.04/ha of profit losses. Conclusively, the results can encourage the improvement of mechanization quality in
rice harvesting and help in reducing rice farmer’s profits losses.
S. Elsoragaby, A. Yahya, M. Mairghany, N. Adam, M. Mahadi, N. Nawi, A. Su.
Page No : 220-225
Comparetive Field Performances and Quality of Conventional Combine and Mid-Size Combine in Wetland Rice Cultivation in Malaysia
In paddy cultivation, harvesting is the most important operation, which needs suitable machinery. Thus, this study was
carried out to compare and evaluate field performances, grain quality and harvesting grain losses of conventional 5 m
cutting width NEW HOLLAND CLAYSON 8080, combine running on a total net area of 42.78 hectares and the new midsize
2.7 m cutting width WORLD STAR WS7.0, combine running on a total net area of 16.95 hectares of plots for two rice
(Oryza sativa L.) cultivation seasons. The conventional combine as compared to mid-size combine showed 14.4% greater
mean fuel consumptions, 31.1% greater mean effective field capacity, 20.90% lesser mean operational speed and 10.8%
lesser mean field efficiency. In terms of quality of harvested grain the conventional combine showed 9.48% lesser mean
whole and healthy grain and 2.29 times greater mean broken grain and 85.78% greater mean foreign materials and 8.97
times greater mean empty grain than the mid-size combine. In terms of grain losses, the conventional combine showed 2.06
times greater mean total losses, 2.94 times greater mean cleaning losses, 1.03 times greater mean unthreshed losses than
the mid-size combine. The results revealed that the mid-size combine is more suitable in conducting the harvesting operation
in rice cultivation in Malaysia than the conventional combine.
T.S. Marliza, A.D. Kupo, S. Rimba, L. Rameli, N.U. Arang, A.A. Habari, W.N.Z.Z. Abdullah.
Page No : 227-229
Development of Aqua-loader for Fish Farming
Aqua-loader is a multifunction machine that use for harvesting, grading, weighing, and packing the fish. This prototype
has been developed in order to conduct a better management in aqua farming that consume cost and time. The objectives
of this project are to reduce the time taken in the management of fish farming, to save cost in handling of the fish farming
and to suggest a better management to the whole fish farming that can reduce a lot of management errors. Aqua-loader
offer valuable benefits to the farmers, which is reducing the cost of labour, to enhance the quality of the product and
increase productivity. Aqua-loader also offer a proper and good management for aquaculture and fish industry.
Mohamad Ghazali, A.N, Shamsudin, R, Amir Jalil, M.S.
Page No : 230-232
Development of Dabai Nutcracker
Dabai fruit is one of the underutilized fruit originated from Sarawak which rich with nutritional values. The flesh can be
eaten raw after soaking it in warm water. The nuts from the seeds can also be consumed as it tastes like peanuts. There are
also recent findings indicates that the nutritional quality of Dabai oil or canarium oil is most likely to be similar to the
composition of palm oil such as the palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid. Dabai nutcracker is designed to separate
the kernel from the nut. The design is to help in solving the difficulties in cracking the nuts of Dabai fruits, difficulties in
accessing the whole kernel when using ready stock nutcracker because the uniqueness of the shape and the shell is very
hard to rupture. The main objective of this research is to design, develop and evaluate the performance of the device. The
dimension of the tool is 351 mm (upper part length) x 250 mm (bottom part length) x 144.09 mm (height) x 100 mm (width).
The performance capacity of this tool is 1.64 kg/hr and gives 97.27 % in overall efficiency.
Modather, M., Azmi, Y., Nor Maria, A., Ahmad Suhaizi, M. S., Suha, E..
Page No : 233-237
Evaluation of Pesticide Spraying Quality in Wetland Rice Cultivation in Malaysia
The uniformity spray distributions, and labour quality of work were analysed for various operating conditions for two real
field operations in wetland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Water sensitive papers used as positioned targets closed to the
plant and were compared against known and standard coverage, droplet size spectra and class size distribution verified
through manual counting. The results indicate that commonly used nozzle, swath width, nozzle heights, nozzle direction,
pressures and labour performance often affect the operation quality and spraying distribution. The result showed that the
spraying penetration index of 32.13%, which is 67.87% lesser than the desired penetration ratio. Spray applications
distribution showed droplet density between 14 and 108 drops cm2 and a wide range of droplet size spectra. The study
shows significant difference in distribution in the field. The higher distribution of very fine droplet (75 -108 droplet/cm2)
was mainly in the area of 0 to 1 metre from 4 edges of the field and 1m left and right the 8 working line, then (61- 73
droplets cm2) and this in the location 1 to 2 m right and left the working line, the other areas ranges from (14 – 60 droplets
cm2). The result shows there are 3.3% is uncovered horizontal area due to labour performance. Most of the operator
71.43% have speed higher than the ideal speed while 28.57% of the operator have speed lower than the idea. 34% of
farmers have applied medium sprays, 66% of them have applied finer sprays.
Mohd Rizal, A., Abdul Razak, J., Mohd Ikmal Hafizi, Abd Rahim, S..
Page No : 238-241
Oil Palm Motorised Cutter Evo 2
MPOB has introduced an oil palm motorised cutter called ‘Cantas Evo’ that works effectively for palms with harvesting
height of below 7-metres. Cantas which is powered by a small petrol engine has been proven to double up harvesting output
compared to manual harvesting. Even though Cantas Evo has shown very positive results in-terms of productivity and
quality, but the R&D has never stopped as to improve its performance and cost-effectiveness. Over the past two years, a
new generation motorized cutter has been designed, developed and tested. The prototype employs gear-box at the bottom
of the machine which brings down the point centre of gravity that helps the handling become more convenient. Almost 50%
of the components have been cut-off which brings to the saving on components of about RM306.06/machine. Results of the
laboratory tests showed that the prototype passed all the required tests, i.e. functional, fatigue and vibration test.. A field
trial conducted in Banting Selangor for 4-5-metres palms’ height revealed that the machine was able to harvest about 3 t
day-1( 4 working hours). As for the economics, based on the estimated machine price of RM3100 per unit plus its
operational, repair and maintenance costs, the cost effectiveness is calculated to be RM1.72 t-1 FFB.
Wan Nor Zanariah, Z. A., Zainul Ariffin, M. I..
Page No : 242-244
Smart Oil Palm Multi-purpose Tractor (Prototype)
Advancements in field mechanization for the oil palm industry have improved year by year and urged to the introduction of
machines which could be adapted to local usage. A suitable choice of machines is depend on the land size, terrain condition,
management practice and economic returns. Recently, mechanization approaches vary from one crop to another crop with
the major aim of overcoming labour shortage and to increase the quality of agriculture production. Thus, “Smart Oil Palm
Multi-purpose Tractor (SOPMT)” is a multipurpose vehicle designed to perform in all types of terrain, while dutiful of the
environment. An articulate 4x4 all-terrain vehicle (prototype) developed with a smart hydraulic system that could work in
peat, wet soils and hilly conditions. This tractor offer versatility in performing wide range of tasks which is suitable for
harvesting and transporting the fresh fruit bunch (FFB) of oil palm to the implement as well as useful for spraying and
applying fertiliser, herbicide, pesticide or insecticide. SOPMT also developed to remove the damaged frond from it trunk
and could extremely pull heavy loads. It is also equipped with control chamber that has adjustable sit and digital screen to
autonomously control the required tasks. This tractor is of a high standard to solve the harvesting, collection and
transportation of FFB. Thus, by using this tractor, it could significantly enhance the quality of labour works as well as the
quality of oil palm production.
L., Lee Ban., K., Lee Wei.
Page No : 245-248
Teknologi Baharu: Menuai Padi & Mengumpul Jerami Pada Mesin Jentuai
Jerami yang dibakar selepas aktiviti menuai selama ini amat merugikan, malah mendatangkan permasalahan lain seperti
pencemaran alam sekitar. Para petani memilih untuk membakar timbunan jerami yang banyak dan tunggul daripada
melakukan aktiviti pereputan. Proses pereputan jerami secara organik memerlukan masa yang agak panjang kerana sisa
jerami yang dihasilkan oleh kebanyakan jentuai sedia ada bersaiz panjang dan dalam bentuk longgokkan besar. Proses
pengumpulan sisa jerami selama ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan mesin penebas dan mesin baler yang dipasang pada
traktor dan dilakukan secara berasingan dan ternyata melibatkan penambahan kos yang terpaksa ditanggung oleh para
petani. Melalui pedekatan teknologi baharu pada mesin jentuai ini, sisa tunggul pokok padi menjadi lebih pendek dan akan
memudahkan proses pereputan secara organik dilakukan. Sisa jerami dikeluarkan dalam bentuk yang mudah untuk
dikumpulkan. Teknologi ini amat membantu banyak pihak terutama kepada para petani, mempunyai kesan ekonomi, dan
dapat mengurangkan aktiviti pembakaran terbuka seraya dapat memelihara alam sekitar iaitu udara daripada tercemar.
A.S. Adli Fikri, A. R. Rohazrin, A. Mohd Taufik.
Page No : 249-252
Preliminary Study of existing Pineapple Transplanter
Problems getting labor and increasing in labor wage with the large farm size will be directing the pineapple farmers
towards to the use of farm mechanization. Manual pineapple planting required 15 workers to plant one hectare of pineapple,
which involve planting of 43500 suckers. A Manual/semi-automatic mechanical pineapple transplanting machine, might
helpful to be used for facilitating pineapple planting activity but a lot of issues regarding safety and standardization of
works are need to be an-countered.This machine is able to plant pineapple in 13 hours/ha. Therefore a gripper type
mechanical transplanter was proposed and developed to be used as a reference to improve the design of the pineapple
transplanter.It is more smaller compared to the existing pineapple transplanter. The objective of the study was to evaluate
and compare the performance of the machine in terms of ease of handling, reliability, stability, safety and
maintainability.Preliminary tests showed that the changes done have improved the workability of the machine for
mechanical transplanting of pineapple suckers.
Ahmad Syafik, S., Mohd Syaifudin, A. R., Mohd Shukri, H. B., Mohd Latiman, Y..
Page No : 253-257
Minimum Energy Performance Standards of Hydroponic Root Zone Cooling System For Lettuce Cultivation on Roof Top Garden
Hydroponic cultivation techniques usually apply for growing leafy vegetables and sometimes fruit vegetables. Problems
commonly associated with hydroponic system are water temperature can easily increase under direct sunlight in the tropics
region especially under crop protection structure thus can affects the quality of fertilizer given. A study to develop a cooling
system for hydroponic technique which can control the water-dissolved nutrient temperatures that suits the crop growth
needs have been conducted to overcome the problem. This paper highlights the development and minimum energy
performance determination of the hydroponics root zone cooling (HRZC) system for lettuce cultivation on (6.06 m x 2.35 m)
roof top garden. It was found that with the using of only 0.5 hp water pump, the HRZC system was able to distribute and
control the hydroponic water-dissolved nutrient temperatures flow to the hydroponic growing container which has a length
of 10m long at different height levels of the structure wall. By using only 1.0 hp chiller water system, the ranges of
temperatures that can be controlled using the HRZC system were between 15 oC to 25 oC which meets the crop-root zone
Muhamad Nurjafni, J., Mohd Salahuddin, M.B..
Page No : 258-261
Misai Kucing plotting arrangement under solar PV panel and harvester machine efficiency – A comparative study
Orthosiphon stamineus, a member of the Lamiaceae, is a native plant to tropical Asia. Misai Kucing can be harvest four
cycles per year after planting. In Malaysia, this plant has been planted under solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays in large scale
area. Until today, the harvesting process of the shoot is done manually using regular hand cutters such as knife and scissors.
It is difficult to harvest the shoots since there is limited space between the plant and the solar panels. By using machinery,
the labor worker and overall cost can be reduced, and productivity and profitability can be increased. Prior to the
harvesting machine development, a study on the plot arrangement of the Misai Kucing under PV panel is required. The
objective of this study is to determine the best plot arrangement based on three parameters which are total polybag
harvested, harvesting time required and distance covered by the machine under one PV panel. The results will be discussed
in consideration with the efficiency aspect of the harvester machine. The result shows that the plot arrangement E which
provide 4 polybags per row to be harvested at one time has the highest total polybag to time and distance ratio. This result
provides efficiency for the harvester machine to be designed and developed.
R. Mat Nasir, A. S. Mat Su, A. Yahya, N. Mat Nawi, N. A. Wagiman.
Page No : 262-266
Soil Compaction Effects of Rubber -Wheel Tractors and Half -Track Tractors in Rice Cultivation
As the machinery being operated in the field, the damage to the soil is obvious, which common damages appears mainly to the
top soil layer such as increase in soil compaction and may create the ‘soft soil’ spot. However, the magnitude and the level of
the damaged soil layer is challenging to quantify over the spatial distribution of the area. The study is focusing on comparing
the level of soil compaction between rubber-wheeled tractor (RWT) and half-track tractor (HTT) during tillage operation using
a rotovator implement in rice production. The widely used of HTT feared to cause damage to the soil hardpan as compared to
common RWT type. A field study was conducted at Tunjang, Wilayah II – Jitra, Kedah with total area of 3.4 ha. More than
4000 data set of the soil pressured was measured using the soil penetrologger throughout two main growing seasons; wet and
dry. The statistical analysis using T-test across all stages and operations revealed no significant different between the RTT and
HTT on the soil compaction at the top soil layer (0-20 cm). However, the overall pressure from HTT is slightly higher than
RWT, but below than threshold values of 1.4 MPa, thus may not limiting the root growth of the rice plant.
Muhammad Aliuddin, B., Nur Shahira, M. A. N., Lilywati, B..
Page No : 267-269
Farm Security System: An Internet of Thing (IoT) Approach in Monitoring Farm Perimeter
Nowadays, security either related to human physical or things is really important as the level of crime occurs that involves
murderer or thief was very frequently and become increases from time to time. Normally, stealing or burgle always heard
to be occurs at residential area but recently this crime also takes place at the farm. As we know, farm located in an opened
area which there were a lot of crops and sometimes farmers also left their farming equipment and chemical substances
at the farm. Therefore, it becomes targeted place to steal instead of houses because there were large tendency and
opportunity not to be seen by peoples when the farmer was not around. Although plants production and farming tools it
is not jewel or money but it could be valuables for thieves to steal and make profits illegally. In order to overcome this
problem, a security system for a farm is invented to helps the farmers from having losses and as well as to reduce the rate
of stealing cases in our country. This security farm system project was implement to be useful in protecting the crops and
farm area during the absence of its owner and its specialization was connected with technological features like Global
System Multimedia (GSM) and Internet of Things (IoT). Thus, it can be controlled by the farmers from any places and at
N. Saripudin, A. Sulaiman, A. Awal, N. Mat Nor.
Page No : 270-275
Genetically Modified (GM) Rice : Exploring University Students’ Awareness and Acceptance in Malaysia
The adoption of genetic engineering in agriculture has made a strong impact. It not only resulted in positive implications
but also raised controversies across the continents leading to further research on consumers’ awareness, acceptance and
perception on GM food. This study was conducted to explore the awareness and the acceptance of GM rice among students
in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor as there has been no similar study on students in Malaysia. A qualitative
approach was adopted in this study; focus group discussions among UiTM students from two campuses and semi structured
interviews with representatives from different fields. Findings from data collected revealed that a majority of the students
in UiTM Selangor were neutral regarding GM rice and the public in general have low awareness and negative acceptance
towards GM food in Malaysia. Educational background have made an impact on awareness; science students showed higher
level of awareness compared to non-science students. Several recommendations could be made to the relevant government
bodies to enhance the current scenario. These include exposure of genetic engineering technology to students from primary
to tertiary level in Malaysia, formulating strategic agricultural policies and plans to benefit the farmers and engagement of
appropriate GM awareness programmes for the public.
Saiful Shahrin, K., Muhammad Hudzari, H. R., Mohamad Asrol, A., Mohamad Noorman, M..
Page No : 276-278
Internet of Thing (IoT) Application for Planning the Routes Collection of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) in Oil Palm Plantation.
Oil palm industry is one of the major industry in Malaysia. There are many new technology and mechanization introduced
for the oil palm industry. It is because to reduce the much dependent on manual labour to carry out the operations in the
plantations. Harvesting and the evacuation of FFB is the most important operation in the plantations and must be done
efficiently to maintain the quality and gain more profit to the company. The normal ways that use in the plantation to collect
the FFB and loosen fruit by the collector is they need to stop at each palm through the harvesting path to find it before
transfer to the platform and then send to the mill. It is become difficult to the collector and take a time to find FFB and
collect the loosen fruit. The FFB Detector applications can ease the process of evacuation FFB to the platform because the
collector can find it from the coordinate that they get after harvesting process. In a conclusion the mobile applications can
give benefit for the evacuation FFB operation in the oil palm industry.
Ahmad Safwan, A. B., Zareen, Z.
Page No : 279-281
Challenges of Smart Farming in Oil Palm Plantation in Malaysia: An Overview
Smart farming refers to the efficiency in agriculture management. One of the component of smart farming includes the usage
of wireless internet and Global Positioning System (GPS) which connected with drone, machinery and equipment without
visiting the farm. In some research, smart farming is stated to become the future of agriculture sector in which helps to
overcome several problems nowadays for example, labour shortage. Oil palm production has been one of the primary
economic sector in Malaysia. At present, Malaysia accounts for an overwhelming contribution to world's palm oil
production and export which is 39% and 44%, respectively. Recently there has been a big drop in oil palm price.
Nonetheless, smart farming is still very relevant in oil palm plantation in order to reduce production cost. However the
implementation of smart farming is not fully implemented and restricted on several factors such as cost, weak imperatives
for change, interoperability of different standards, connectivity in rural areas, and lack of knowledge on several
Muhammad Hudzari, H. R.*, Mohammad Mu’az, H., Samihah, M., Zareen, Z., Muhammad Nuruddin, M. N..
Page No : 282-285
Pendidikan STEM@STREAM di dalam bidang Perladangan dan Agroteknologi
Dalam apa bidang sekalipun manusia menceburi didalam kehidupannya, syarat tersebut sebagaimana termaktub di dalam Al-Quran pada surah At-Tin , pastinya manuysia akan beroleh kejayaan di dunia mahupun ukhrawi. Justeru di dalam bidang pertanian malahan bagi manusia pertama yang telah diciptakanNYA, Adam Alaihissalam dikatakan telah
dibekalkan dengan kemahiran didalam bidang pertanian bagi meneruskan survivalnya di alam yang fana ini sejurus diturunkan dari syurga. Malahan bercucuk tanam pastinya beroleh hasilnya di dunia mahupun pahala di akhirat sebagaimana mafhum sabdaan Nabi Muhammad S.A.W. Sehubungan itu kertas kerja ini membentangkan kaedah-kaedah
yang digunakan dalam menerangkan kepentingan bidang pertanian terutamanya di dalam industri perladangan serta penggunaan teknologi bagi menarik minat serta meningkatkan pemahaman para pelajar terhadap kemahiran didalam
modul program STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering , Mathematic) dan STREAM (Science, Technology, Reading,
Engineering, Arts, Mathematic). Beberapa jenis modul STEM telah di kongsikan dan dibentangkan kepada para pelajar dari beberapa sekolah menengah kebangsaan di negeri Selangor. Modul ini merupakan sebahagian modul-modul STEM
yang dijalani oleh rakan STEM@UiTM untuk sekolah-sekolah pilihan oleh Jabatan Pendidkan Negeri Selangor (JPS).
Ianya ini telah dikategorikan di dalam bidang Sains dan terbahagi pula kepada dua bahagian iaitu tiga jenis modul bagi
dijalani aktivitinya bersama para pelajar menerusi kakitangan dari Fakulti Perladangan dan Agroteknologi UiTM,
manakala satu jenis modul lagi, boleh dijalani oleh rakan staf UiTM walaupun dari Fakulti yang berlainan. Melalui kaedahkaedah
yang diterapkan di dalam modul-modul ini, pastinya InshaAllah dapat menarik minat serta menjelaskan kepada
para pelajar akan kepentingan pendidikan dan pertanian untuk di ceburi yang ianya menjadi bahan asas untuk kehidupan disamping membentuk dorongan jiwa bagi memperoleh keredhaan Ilahi.
Mohd Ashraf Zainol Abidin, Nur Nabilah Atiq Ramli, Iman Hazwam Abd Halim, Mohamad Khairri Arshad.
Page No : 286-289
Real-time Nutrient Film Technique Management and Monitoring System Using Internet of Thing
Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) is a modern cultivation system that introduced under a hydroponic system that suitable to
apply in a small or large unit area. However, conventional NFT system requires plenty of time and workforce to manage
and monitor the fertilizer solution. Therefore, there is a need to improve the existing conventional NFT management and
monitoring technique in order to save time and reduce workforce. Thus, we built the NFT management and monitoring
system that can be monitored and get the real-time data of the several fertilizers’ parameters based on the Internet of Thing
(IoT) technology. The parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, temperature and water level were measured
using sensors that connected to the Generic NanoFI microcontroller and Wi-Fi module ESP8266. Next, this system was
calibrated to ensure the accuracy of data retrieved and sensitiveness of alarm systems. The result shows that this system
was able to retrieve the real-time data of the fertilizer solution’ parameters and sending the early alarm notification if any
data is exceeded the range setting. Thus, based on the calibration results, it is a reliable system to manage and monitor the
NFT fertilizer solution remotely.
Norasma, C. Y. N, Faten, N. S. Z. A., Rhushalshafira, R..
Page No : 290-294
Merekabentuk Konseptual Laman Sesawang Berasaskan GIS bagi Kawalan Serangga Perosak dan Serangan Penyakit untuk Tanaman Padi.
Beras merupakan makanan ruji rakyat Malaysia dan tahap penghasilan kendiri (SSL) adalah sebanyak 71.5%. Kerajaan
Malaysia telah menetapkan untuk menaikkan tahap SSL kepada 100% menjelang tahun 2020. Penghasilan beras dapat
ditingkatkan melalui sistem pengurusan dan teknik penanaman yang baik. Oleh itu, maklumat mengenai serangan perosak
dan gejala serangan penyakit amatlah penting kepada golongan petani bagi mengelak sebarang serangan sepanjang
tempoh penanaman. Justeru, objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mencari dan mengkaji laman sesawang sedia ada yang
menyediakan maklumat mengenai masalah ini dan merekabentuk konseptual laman sesawang berasaskan GIS bagi kawalan
serangga perosak dan serangan penyakit untuk tanaman padi. Aplikasi ini akan membantu golongan petani untuk mencari
solusi dan sekaligus membantu menguruskan penanaman padi dengan lebih baik. Aktiviti kajian ini dibahagikan kepada
dua fasa. Fasa pertama melibatkan aktiviti mengkaji laman sesawang sedia ada dan fasa kedua adalah merekabentuk sistem
maklumat yang mempunyai informasi mengenai serangga perosak dan jenis penyakit berdasarkan kepada kajian literatur.
Dapatan daripada kajian ini adalah rekabentuk konseptual yang komprehensif bagi aplikasi atas talian dan boleh dijadikan
garis panduan oleh pihak kerajaan pada masa akan datang. Kajian ini merupakan titik permulaan untuk melaksanakan
Internet of Thing (IoT) dalam bidang pertanian. Sistem ini akan membantu golongan petani untuk mendapatkan maklumat
mengenai cara mengawal serangga perosak dan serangan penyakit di sawah. Seterusnya produktiviti penghasilan beras
dapat ditingkatkan dan konsep laman sesawang ini boleh digunakan untuk tanaman lain seperti kelapa sawit, getah, nenas
R N Athirah, C Y N Norasma, M R Ismail, F Azali, M H Omar.
Page No : 295-298
PADI2U: Pembangunan Aplikasi Telefon Pintar untuk Pengurusan Padi di KADA Kelantan
Teknologi dalam pertanian telah menunjukkan potensi yang tinggi untuk menambahbaik dalam pengurusan pertanian. Hal
ini selaras dengan tema revolusi industri 4.0 (I.R 4.0) yang sedang hangat dibentangkan di seluruh dunia, terutamanya
negara kita, Malaysia. Kesedaran ini telah menarik perhatian para penyelidik untuk membangunkan teknologi kepada
petani untuk memudahkan rutin harian mereka dan juga untuk mengurangkan kos pekerja dan meningkatkan pengeluaran
hasil. Telefon pintar merupakan salah satu teknologi yang berguna dalam bidang pertanian kerana mudah untuk dibawa
dan harganya juga berpatutan kepada pembeli. Telefon pintar membantu pengguna untuk mencari lokasi dan mengakses
maklumat serta merakam gambar dan video. Justeru itu, kajian ini menyatukan kesemua fungsi ini untuk menghasilkan satu
aplikasi telefon pintar yang bertujuan untuk menyalurkan maklumat tentang tanaman dan pengurusan ladang yang efektif
kepada petani. Padi2U ialah aplikasi telefon mudah alih yang dibangunkan untuk membantu petani di KADA (Kelantan)
bagi menguruskan sawah padi mereka. Aplikasi ini dibina menggunakan Master App Builder yang merupakan laman
sesawang untuk menghasilkan aplikasi. Aplikasi ini mengandungi maklumat seperti variati PadiU Putra, maklumat lokasi
kajian, rawatan yang digunakan di sawah padi, maklumat cuaca, pengurusan perosak dan penyakit, penggunaan baja dan
imej multispektral dari awal penanaman sehingga penuaian hasil padi. Semua maklumat ini akan diterangkan dalam
Bahasa Melayu yang mudah difahami oleh pengguna. Hasil akhir projek ini ialah pembangunan aplikasi telefon pintar
yang berguna untuk pemantauan tanaman dan memperbaiki pengurusan yang sedia ada. Cara ini boleh diaplikasikan untuk
tanaman yang lain juga seperti kelapa sawit dan getah. Aplikasi ini boleh dimuat turun melalui Google Playstore secara
percuma pada masa hadapan.
Ang, Y., Nik Norasma, C. Y., Nor Athirah, R., Mohd Razi, I., Zulkarami, B., Fadzilah, M. A..
Page No : 299-301
Pengukuran Klorofil Daun Padi menggunakan indeks tumbuhan spektrum dari imej multispektral
Pertanian persis (PA) adalah satu teknik penanaman untuk meningkatkan pengeluaran dan mengurangkan input bagi
mengekalkan permintaan makanan di dunia. Kenderaan udara tanpa pemandu (UAV) atau lebih dikenali sebagai dron adalah
salah satu alat yang digunakan dalam pemantauan tanaman untuk pertanian persis. Dron atau UAV adalah komponen penting
dalam konsep PA untuk pengumpulan imej di lapangan. Kaedah tradisional, seperti penerokaan tanaman atau tinjauan
lapangan, tidak berkesan dalam mengenal pasti status nutrien dan keadaan tanaman. Penggunaan teknologi seperti teknologi
UAV dalam PA, akan membantu untuk membuat cerapan dan menilai tahap kesihatan tanaman secara cepat dan mudah.
Objektif kajian ini adalah mengkaji nilai NDVI dan NDRE yang menggunakan aerial imej dan analisis imej objek (OBIA)
serta mengesahkan indeks vegetatif (NDVI dan NDRE) dalam peta padi dengan menggunakan data klorofil dari SPAD
meter.Keputusan menunjukkan NDVI (R2 = 0.91) dan NDRE (R2 = 0.95) yang menggunakan aerial imej dan analisis imej
objek (OBIA) memberi korelasi linear positif dengan pembacaan SPAD. Hasil daripada projek ini, kami mendapati bahawa
UAV berpotensi membantu pemantauan padi di lapangan.
Anas, M. M..
Page No : 302-305
Social Innovation for Community Building through Technology Simplification
Social Innovation is a concept of promoting social development of a community through the introduction of innovation to
promote the community to change for the better. The innovation here can be technological, economic, social or combinations
of these that aims to improve the community standard of living. One way to start a social innovation is by understanding the
problems of the community through experiential learning. A Social Innovation through Team Entrepreneurial Learning
(SITEL) workshop was held in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah in June 2018 where one project focuses on stingless bee community in
Kg. Mitabang, Kiulu. Through experiential learning of living, discussing and befriending the community, a project was born
to help the community to improve their stingless bee honey production by the introduction of homemade stingless bee honey
pump. The technology simplification uses items obtainable from local hardware store and aquarium shop to build the pump
that could be self-made and self-maintained by the community through a training video. The feedback from the community
was positive after the initial introduction of the pump where they are reporting honey production every two weeks compared
to months prior to using the pumps.
Faiz, M.C.H., Liyana, N.Y., Nurulhuda, K., Muharam, F.M., Zulkafli, Z., Zulkarami, B., Razi Ismail, M..
Page No : 306-309
Preliminary Evaluation of ORYZA (v3) Crop Growth Model for MR269 Rice Variety
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population, including about 30 million Malaysians.
Rice self-sufficiency level (SSL) in Malaysia is currently at 70% and the level does not satisfy the local demand. Therefore,
rice production needs to be increased to 80% by the year 2020 (MOA, 2015). The Malaysian Government aims to increase
average rice grain production from 4.5 mt/ha to 6.0 mt/ha (Ismail, 2017). Among the ways to increase the production of
rice is by improving crop management, such as finding best sowing dates, and best management practices such as optimum
usage of fertilizer rates and rice varieties that suit weather conditions. Simulations of crop models are alternatives to costly
trial experiments in exploring opportunities for increasing agricultural system productivity. Existing rice crop growth
models have not been rigorously explored to assess productivity of Malaysian rice systems. Prior to scenario studies using
a rice crop growth model, performance of the model must first be evaluated. Therefore, this paper reports preliminary
evaluation on the performance of a rice crop growth model called ORYZA (v3). The model was evaluated against rice crop
physiological properties collected at two farmers’ plots at IADA KETARA, Terengganu. The preliminary evaluation
indicates that ORYZA (v3) has a potential in simulating the physiological properties of MR269, but the model must be
calibrated. Calibration of the model is currently on-going.
Badaruzzaman, M. N..
Page No : 310-313
Aktiviti Pemindahan Teknologi Melalui Testbed Teknologi MARDI
Kajian ini adalah mengenai aktiviti-aktiviti pemindahan teknologi MARDI di testbed teknologi MARDI bagi tahun 2017
dan 2018. Ia adalah sebahagian daripada aktiviti projek pembangunan RMKe 11, pembangunan usahawan tekno moden
yang kompetitif di pasaran domestik dan global di bawah sub projek B. Antara aktiviti pemindahan teknologi yang
dikendalikan di testbed teknologi MARDI adalah latihan sangkut, perantis, demonstrasi/lawatan dan kursus. Pada tahun
2017, seramai 1352 peserta telah mendapat manafaat dari aktiviti pemindahan teknologi di testbed teknologi MARDI.
Daripada jumlah ini, 575 peserta mengikuti latihan sangkut, 451 mengikuti demonstrasi/lawatan, 242 mengikuti kursus dan
dan 84 peserta mengikuti program perantis. Manakala pada tahun 2018 seramai 1,403 peserta mendapat latihan
pemindahan teknologi di testbed teknologi MARDI di seluruh negara. Pada tahun 2018 seramai 478 peserta mengikuti
latihan sangkut, 646 mengikuti demonstrasi/lawatan, 244 mengikuti kursus dan 35 peserta mengikuti program perantis.